Online chmod permissions calculator

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Chmod command

In the world of Linux, file and directory permissions are a crucial aspect of system security and user management. The Chmod (short for "change mode") command is your key to controlling who can access, modify, and execute files and directories on a Linux system. In this article, we'll delve into the Chmod permissions system and provide a comprehensive guide to help you understand how it works and how to use it effectively.

Chmod Permissions at a Glance

Chmod permissions consist of three basic components: user, group, and others. Each of these components can have three permission levels: read (r), write (w), and execute (x). These permissions determine what actions can be performed on a file or directory. Let's break down the components and their meanings:

User (Owner):



Chmod Notation

Chmod permissions are represented using a three-character notation. The format is as follows:

For example, if a file has the permissions "rw-r--r--," it means:

  • The owner can read and write (rw) the file.
  • The group can read (r) the file.
  • Others can read (r) the file.
  • Using Numeric Notation

    In addition to the symbolic notation, Chmod permissions can also be represented using numeric values. Each permission is assigned a numeric value:

    You can calculate the permission value by summing up the values for each permission you want to grant. For example, if you want to give read and write permissions (rw), you would assign a value of 6 (4 for read + 2 for write).

    Chmod Commands

    To change permissions using Chmod, you can use either symbolic notation or numeric notation. Here are some common Chmod commands:

    Symbolic Notation:

    To add or remove permissions for a user, group, or others, you can use the + (add) or - (remove) symbols, followed by the permission you want to modify.

    Example: 'chmod u+w myfile' adds write permission for the owner of the file.

    Numeric Notation:

    To set permissions directly, you can use the numeric notation with a three-digit number.

    Example: 'chmod 644 myfile' sets read and write permissions for the owner and read-only permissions for group and others.

    Advanced Chmod Commands

    Chmod allows you to apply permissions recursively to directories and their contents using the -R flag.

    Example: 'chmod -R 755 mydirectory' sets read, write, and execute permissions for the owner and read and execute permissions for group and others, recursively for the directory and its contents.


    Understanding the Chmod permissions system is crucial for Linux system administrators and users. By using Chmod effectively, you can control access to your files and directories, enhancing security and privacy. Whether you opt for symbolic or numeric notation, Chmod provides you with the flexibility to fine-tune permissions to meet your specific needs. Mastering Chmod is a valuable skill that can help you manage your Linux system with confidence.